Water Softener

Hard Water

Reverse osmosis (RO) is the process in which a semi-permeable membranes is used clean water.  Pressure is used as the driving force to send water and minimal ions across the membrane resulting a water far less concentration of salts and ions.  To measure the quality of water we measure the Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) of the water.  Typical drinking water will have less than 750 mg/l of TDS but varies by the region.  After using an RO Unit to purify water it will typically remove 95-98% of the TDS in the water.  This leaves you with a very clean water to drink and use.  RO is the best process for producing a very clean water at your home or business.

RO Units are available in various sizes from an Under-the-Sink RO unit that produces 50 gallons per day to large systems that produce millions of gallons per day.  HWS specializes in all sizes of RO Units to suit any residential or small commercial application.  For large commercial or industrial applications please click here for the parent company, Industrial Water Services. RO water benefits include all of the items listed above under water softeners plus the following:

  1. Clean "Purified Bottled Water" taste. (No more purchasing bottled water)
  2. Crystal clear ice (when connected to ice maker)
  3. Water with greatly reduced salts, minerals, and potentially harmful items (Viruses, bacteria, arsenic, etc)

Reverse Osmosis Unit

Hard water is usually defined as water which contains a high concentration of calcium and magnesium ion.  These two ions combine with other ions to create scale.  The two most common types of scales that are formed are Calcium Carbonate (CaCO3) and Magnesium Sulfate (MgSO4).  Both of these items are very difficult to remove from various surfaces such as glass (drinking glasses, shower doors, windows, etc..); metal surfaces (clothes washing machine, water heater, dish water, fixtures, utensils); our bodies (hair and skin).  Hardness is typically measured in grains per gallon (gpg).  See the scale below for hardness level. 

Water softeners are the perfect option to deal with hard water.  A water softener uses an Ion Exchange Resin which will remove hardness ions (Calcium and Magnesium) and replace those with Sodium Ions (Potassium Ions may be used as well). The resulting water will be less than one grain per gallon with a properly sized and functioning water softener.  As the ion exchange resin is used, the resin becomes exhausted and must be regenerated.  At this time the softener performs an automatic regeneration process in when a concentrated brine solution (water and salt (NaCl or KCl)) is run through the bed in which the sodium ions remove all of the hardness ions from the resin.  At this point the unit is ready to begin softening again.  This process typically happens early in the morning when water use is minimal.  Water softeners have the following benefits:

  1. Soap will lather and clean better while using less.
  2. Hair and skin will feel noticeable cleaner and softer.  You will also use less lotion to feel the same results.
  3. Your sinks, tubs, faucets and fixtures will be free of soap scum and mineral deposits.
  4. Cloths will be softer after washing and last through more washes.
  5. Your washing machines (clothes and dishes) will last longer.
  6. Glassware and utensils will have noticeable less/no spots.
  7. Water heaters, especially tank-less units, will last longer and cost less to run.


HWS does not sell nor endorse the use of salt free water treatment options.